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The situation of garbage in our life发布日期:2020-04-27 17:15 浏览次数:

1. Actual annual production of domestic waste in China
(1) The per capita output of domestic waste in major cities. The expert group inspected the classification of domestic waste in 15 major cities, consulted the domestic waste account of the pilot community, analyzed the statistical data and data provided by the local urban management and environmental sanitation system, and concluded that the average domestic waste output per person in the following 13 cities (counties) in 2015 was 1.13kg per day (see Table 1).

Table 1: per capita daily domestic waste output of major cities in 2015


Note: the data in this table is from the field investigation of the expert group
It can be seen from table 1 that Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Chongqing generate the largest amount of domestic waste per day, which is in line with the law of hot weather in the south, relatively developed economy and large amount of domestic waste. In Guiyang and Pingdu County, the economy and living standards are relatively low, and the amount of domestic waste is relatively small. The expert group believes that this data is in line with the actual situation and can reflect the basic situation of the average domestic waste per person per day in the country.
(2) At present, the annual output of domestic garbage in urban and rural areas in China. According to the environmental sanitation data of different places, the scale of the permanent population of cities in China and the current data of 1.13 kg of domestic waste per person per day, the expert group concluded that the actual annual production of domestic waste in cities (including counties) in 2015 was 258 million tons. According to the big data of China Recycling Association, there are 600000 administrative villages with a population of 611 million in China's rural areas. At present, the amount of domestic waste in China's rural areas is about 170 million tons per year (excluding agricultural waste such as orange pole and plastic film). At present, the actual annual output of urban and rural domestic waste is 428 million tons.
2. Growth rate of domestic waste in recent years
(1) The growth rate of domestic waste in major cities in recent two years. Through field investigation, the expert group obtained basically consistent information and statistical data from urban management departments and environmental sanitation systems in all regions: This is the rapid growth momentum of municipal solid waste in recent two years, and the domestic waste in 15 major cities in 2015 increased by 8.27% compared with the average year-on-year growth in 2014 (see Table 2).
Table 2: domestic waste output of major cities surveyed by the expert group in 2014 and 2015



Note: the data in this table is from the field investigation of the expert group
From table 2, it can be seen that in 2015, the fastest growth rate of municipal solid waste was in Shenzhen and Guangzhou, accounting for 11% and 10%, and the smallest growth rate was in Pingdu County, Shandong Province, accounting for 6%. This difference conforms to the development law that the higher the economic development level and living standard are, the greater the amount of domestic waste is.
(2) During the "12th Five Year Plan" period, the growth rate of domestic waste in the whole country. According to the data from the field survey and the data from relevant departments, the expert group found that in 2010, the amount of domestic garbage generated in China was two point two one Billion tons, by 2015, the amount of domestic waste generated in China will increase to two point five eight Billion tons, with an average annual growth of 3% in six years (see Table 3).



Note: the data in this table are from the field survey and literature of the expert group
Table 3 reflects the development trend of the annual growth of urban domestic waste in China. The reasons are as follows: first, the national living standard has been improved year by year, and the amount of domestic waste has increased with the increase. In recent years, online shopping has developed rapidly, and packaging waste has increased greatly. Second, in recent years, the market of renewable resources industry has been in a downturn, and the recycling industry has shrunk dramatically. Some recycling enterprises have closed down, and a large number of recycling personnel have turned to other businesses. Some traditional renewable resources have been unrecycled and have entered the track of domestic waste cleaning and transportation.
3. Key points of domestic waste reduction
At present, most cities in the country divide domestic garbage into kitchen waste, recyclable waste, other garbage and harmful garbage according to the "quartering method". When promoting the "integration of two networks", we need to find out the focus of reduction and resource utilization, which requires an analysis of the average proportion of household garbage in the "quartering method". In the residential areas investigated by the expert group, the proportion of kitchen waste, recyclable waste and non recyclable waste in the pilot areas varies due to the different garbage classification efforts. See Table 4 for details.
Table 4: proportion of domestic waste components in pilot communities of major cities






图1:生活垃圾四大成份平均占比Figure 1: average proportion of four components of domestic waste



As can be seen from Figure 1, kitchen waste accounts for 56%, recyclable waste accounts for 26%, and non recyclable waste only accounts for 17%. At present, most of the domestic garbage in the country is not classified, and all four categories have entered the track of sanitation and transportation. In theory, if kitchen waste and recyclable waste are classified and put into recycling and resource utilization track, only 17% of the waste transported to landfill and incineration by sanitation will be removed, and the terminal treatment pressure will be greatly relieved. Therefore, the expert group believes that the classification of domestic waste is imperative, and the focus of reduction is kitchen waste and recyclable waste.


4. Domestic waste treatment capacity gap
In 2010, the national urban domestic waste treatment capacity forty-five point seven 10000 tons / day, capacity gap fourteen point eight 10000 tons / day. In the 12th Five Year Plan, the government invested more than 260 billion yuan in the construction of harmless treatment facilities and collection, transportation and transfer system for domestic waste. By 2015, there are 1949 domestic waste harmless disposal facilities (including landfills and incineration plants) in China's cities and towns (including county towns), with the domestic waste disposal capacity reaching seventy-two point four six 10000 tons / day (see Table 5). However, in 2015, the actual annual output of domestic waste in urban and rural areas (urban and rural) is four point two eight Billion tons, 1.17 million tons / day on average. That is to say, after the "12th Five Year Plan" investment and construction, the gap of domestic waste treatment capacity has not been narrowed, but expanded, from 2010 fourteen point eight 10000 tons / day, expanded to 2015's forty-four point five four 10000 tons / day (see Table 6). The main reason is that the growth rate of domestic waste is relatively fast in recent years, and the capacity-building cannot keep up with the growth rate of waste.
Table 5: number and capacity of domestic waste treatment facilities in 2015



Note: the data in Table 5 are from the research data released by the housing and construction department and the environmental protection department
Table 6: comparison of domestic waste treatment capacity and capacity gap between 2010 and 2015



Note: the data in Table 6 are from the data of the housing and construction department and the investigation data of the expert group

5. Current domestic waste treatment pattern in China
In 2010, the domestic waste treatment pattern in China was: landfill accounted for 79%, incineration accounted for 17%, and others accounted for 4%. After the investment and development during the 12th Five Year Plan period, the domestic waste treatment pattern in China has changed to some extent. In 2015, landfill accounted for 63.9%, incineration accounted for 33.9%, and others accounted for 2.2%. It can be seen that at present, landfill is still the main treatment method of domestic waste in China, supplemented by incineration.
The disadvantages of this disposal pattern are: landfill takes up a lot of land resources, it is difficult to find new landfill sites in many cities, and the construction of landfill site has huge investment and high disposal cost. If the incineration plant is built vigorously, the investment and operation cost will be higher, and the average incineration cost per ton of waste will be more than 150 yuan. There will also be the neighborhood effect caused by this, which will become a hidden danger affecting social stability.
2、 The pain points of domestic waste recycling
1. Front end mixed delivery and mixed transportation
The discharge of domestic waste involves thousands of households. The level of people's understanding of environmental protection and resource and environment utilization is relatively low, and there is generally a "spectator mentality". This quality enables the public to form a bad habit of mixing domestic waste, that is, mixing kitchen waste, low value recyclables and non recyclable waste into a bag, how to throw them conveniently. In the process of collection and transportation, the sanitation system is only responsible for the collection and transportation of domestic waste, without the process design of classified collection and transportation. Even for the domestic waste sorted out by some pilot communities, it is mixed transportation in the collection and transportation process, resulting in the awkward situation of "first separation and then mixing".
2. The chain for back-end processing is missing
The industrial chain of domestic waste treatment is short of processing and utilization chain to undertake low value recyclable materials. Classification is the means, processing and utilization is the purpose. Without the processing and utilization of the back end, the low value recyclables separated from the front end have no place to go, and classification will be difficult to continue.
3. Separation of two networks, incompatible infrastructure
At present, recycling stations (points) and domestic garbage collection stations are set up in most parts of the country. Garbage collection belongs to public facilities, which are included in the urban construction planning and set up according to the unified layout of the planning. However, the recycling stations (points) of renewable resources are not included in the urban construction planning, and there are great obstacles to enter the community to set up points. The recycling stations (points) that have been set up are often demolished because they do not conform to the planning. In many places, the recycling personnel are coaxed away, resulting in inconvenient traffic and investment of residents.
4. Lack of unified classification standard
At present, there is no unified standard for garbage classification, resulting in no standard to be followed when classifying, and the public is not clear what standard to classify domestic garbage. In particular, there are many kinds of low value recyclable items, without detailed classification standards, so it is not easy for citizens to distinguish, let alone operate classification. Some local governments also set some classification standards, but there are great differences between different regions, which mislead the citizens.
5. Government's multi management, lack of functions and insufficient policy support
From the perspective of management mechanism, the resource recovery system belonging to the commercial department and the environmental sanitation system belonging to the urban management department are under different leadership. Both departments have their own point of view and starting point and lack of work coordination. In addition, the recycling of domestic waste also involves environmental protection, development and reform, finance and taxation, streets, neighborhood committees, property management enterprises and other departments. There are many management departments and coordination is more difficult.
From the perspective of government function, the social public welfare attribute of domestic waste is very strong. The government belongs to the first responsible person in this respect, but in the actual work, the government function is absent. For example, in terms of the introduction of compulsory classification and recycling laws and regulations, mobilization of various forces for classification publicity, guidance and supervision, in terms of how to integrate the resource recovery network and the sanitation and transportation network, in terms of the layout of the downstream chain of low value recyclables, in terms of the development of waste classification standards, etc., the government functions are often absent.
From the perspective of policy support, the recycling of low value recyclables can not be driven only by the law of market value without appropriate policy support. At present, most parts of the country have not issued financial policies to support the recycling of low value recyclable materials. In terms of land use policy, the whole country has not given support to the land use planning policy for the setting of renewable resource recovery stations (points), resulting in no living space for recycling outlets and unsustainable operation.


3、 How to implement "two networks integration"
1. Difficulties and key points of domestic waste
Clarify the difficulties. There are two difficulties in the chain of domestic waste industry, the classification of front-end sources and the layout of back-end processing and utilization (especially the processing and utilization of low value recyclable materials). The source classification is not in place, which makes it difficult for the back-end processing and utilization; the back-end processing and utilization chain is missing, and the front-end classification is difficult to continue. To implement the integration of two networks, we should first study these two difficulties.
Focus. Kitchen waste and recyclable waste, especially low value recyclable waste, are the focus of reduction. Through the promotion of "two networks integration", improve the recycling amount of recyclable garbage and the recycling amount of kitchen waste, minimize the amount of garbage clearing and transportation, and reduce the pressure of terminal treatment.
2. Four principles of promoting "integration of two networks"
Principle of overall planning and coordination. Strengthen the coordination of all departments, establish a joint promotion mechanism, clarify the responsibilities of industry supervision, territorial management and main body implementation, and strengthen resource sharing and unified research cooperation in network layout planning, facilities and equipment sharing, sorting, recycling and clearing service cooperation, incentive mechanism, publicity activities, etc.
Adjust measures to local conditions. According to the actual situation of the resource recovery and garbage removal and transportation system, each region shall select the suitable integration mode and operation mode to try first, and then gradually promote them after obtaining mature experience, so as to avoid one size fits all.
Policy support and market driven. Low value waste is driven by policy, while high value waste is driven by market. It is necessary to establish a policy support and guarantee system for low value recyclables and kitchen waste, so as to leverage market forces and form a long-term operation mechanism for low value waste.
Principles of policy promotion, market operation and participation of the whole people. The government plays a driving and guiding role in industry planning, administrative measures and policy mechanism guarantee. Enterprises carry out industrialized operation according to government planning. Garbage is a public social problem, and the whole people participate in garbage classification.
3. Three goals should be achieved in "two networks integration"
Through the integrated operation of the resource recovery network and the garbage removal and transportation network in each link, we can achieve the following: first, realize the reduction and recycling of domestic garbage, reduce the pressure of the terminal treatment of domestic garbage, and promote the recycling of resources. Second, by integrating the human resources and site facilities of the two networks of environmental sanitation and resource recovery, collecting and arranging waste pickers, improving resource recovery outlets and processing centers, a complete and standardized recycling system will be formed. Third, through the integration of the two networks, promote the transformation and upgrading of renewable resources enterprises to environmental services.
4. Power and responsibility positioning of government, enterprises and the public
The government is the main body of the management of the classification and reduction of domestic waste, whose responsibilities are legislation, planning, promotion and supervision; the enterprise is the main body of the operation of domestic waste, which undertakes the classification, recycling, clearing and handling of domestic waste, and establishes the whole industrial chain of domestic waste; Residents (including all kinds of units that generate garbage) are the producers of domestic garbage and the main body responsible for the classified delivery of domestic garbage. Their responsibilities are to classify the delivery and supervise the behaviors of the government and enterprises according to the relevant requirements of the government.
5. Responsible subject of garbage classification management
(1) Improve the three-level management structure. Improve the organization and management structure of the city, district and street (community), pay attention to legislation, planning, overall coordination and establish policy support system at the city level, organize implementation and promotion and take charge of management work at the district level according to the planning and overall planning of the municipal government; The streets (towns) shall implement the main responsibility of management, be responsible for the specific implementation of waste classification work to communities and households, mobilize the strength of all parties in the area, give full play to the role of neighborhood committees, communities and property enterprises, specifically coordinate the organization and implementation, and promote the effective implementation of waste classification.
(2) Determine the responsible subject of garbage classification management. Garbage classification involves thousands of households, and all localities shall make clear the responsibility subjects of garbage classification management: urban residential areas, where property management is implemented, streets and property service units are the responsibility subjects of classification management; government agencies, enterprises and institutions, units are the responsibility subjects of classification management; various public places, business management units are the responsibility subjects of classification management.
(3) Responsibility of the main body responsible for garbage classification management. Its responsibilities include: establishing the daily management system for the classification of domestic waste, announcing the time, place and way of putting different types of domestic waste; carrying out the classification publicity of domestic waste, guiding and supervising the units and individuals to reduce the amount at the source and put the waste in classification, and giving advice, stopping and even compulsory restriction to the behaviors that do not meet the requirements of classification putting in; According to the relevant regulations, in combination with the amount of domestic waste generated and the delivery mode, the domestic waste sorting collection containers shall be reasonably set up and kept clean and beautiful.
6. Operation subject of "two networks integration"
(1) Cultivate operation subjects. Through bidding or other ways, select recycling enterprises with standardized management and good faith in the renewable resources industry, or introduce other industry enterprises, as the local operation subject of "two networks integration", connect the recycling and resource utilization of recyclable waste, kitchen waste and hazardous waste, and build a resource recycling network and waste industry chain.
(2) Adopt operation mode according to local conditions. According to the actual investigation and summary of the expert group, what kind of operation mode the operation subject adopts can be adapted to the local conditions according to the local conditions and the enterprise's own conditions:
Integrated mode of sanitation and recycling. This mode is usually a service purchased by the government. It is an all-round "two networks" to choose an operation entity to undertake waste classification, sanitation and transportation, road cleaning, resource recycling and processing, kitchen waste recycling and utilization, and provide the government with a package of domestic waste solutions

Cross border transformation mode of renewable resources enterprises. Traditional renewable resource enterprises are responsible for waste classification, network layout, recycling and processing of recyclable waste, and recycling of kitchen waste, so as to realize the cross-border transformation from traditional renewable resource enterprises to environmental services. Such as Guiyang Gaoyuan company, Guangzhou supply and marketing agency, Beijing tiantianjie model.
The mode of backward extension of sanitation enterprises. Environmental sanitation enterprises are involved in waste classification, recyclable waste recycling and resource processing and utilization. Their advantages are to give full play to the advantages of human resources and site facilities of environmental sanitation and improve the efficiency of the two networks. Such as Beijing Jinghuan group and Hangzhou sanitation group.
The mode of government's overall involvement. The competent government departments are fully involved in the layout of classification, station and yard, network setting, main enterprise selection and back-end processing and utilization, and local financial funds provide strong support. This model has a quick effect and is suitable for initial pilot. For example, Yuexiu District in Guangzhou, Songjiang District in Shanghai and the environmental sanitation department in Suzhou.
Distributed processing mode. The front-end realizes dry and wet classification, and the middle-end uses the garbage compression room and the intermediate transfer field of the sanitation system to carry out transformation and upgrading, and processes kitchen waste and recyclable garbage nearby and dispersedly, so as to achieve "one field dual-use" and change the centralized waste treatment into distributed treatment. The advantages are short transportation distance, low cost of logistics and site, and less leakage. Such as Shenzhen Yinger technology.
Single variety whole industry chain mode. Establish a single variety recycling network and specialized processing and production base, and build a professional recycling, processing, utilization and end product manufacturing industry chain. This model is suitable for low value recyclable materials such as waste spinning, waste glass and large garbage. Such as Guangdong Hengfeng Textile Co., Ltd.
7. Promote the integration of five aspects
(1) Promote the integration of management mechanism. First of all, the integration of two networks is the integration of management mechanism. According to the actual situation, the functions of relevant management departments can be integrated to form a new competent department to coordinate and manage the whole industrial chain of domestic waste, such as Beijing metropolitan management. The government joint meeting (or leading group) mechanism can also be used to establish a government joint meeting system (or leading group) led by the commercial administrative department and the urban management administrative department, with the participation of relevant departments, to promote the integration of the management mechanism, and to formulate unified planning and policy initiatives.
(2) Promote personnel integration. The business department and the urban management department shall fully coordinate, establish a "one post, two posts" system, encourage the environmental sanitation workers to take part-time job in the classification and recycling of recyclable waste (or the recyclers take part-time job in the environmental sanitation and cleaning), and be responsible for the daily work of waste recycling, waste classification, account records, classification statistics, etc. in the community. The recycling enterprise shall receive the waste products collected by the sanitation workers according to the market conditions. The recycling behavior of one post and two post sanitation workers shall be standardized in accordance with the relevant requirements of the construction of the recycling system of the Ministry of Commerce.
(3) Promote the integration of logistics. According to the actual situation, local governments can promote the integration of two transportation resources, namely, environmental sanitation and transportation and recycling logistics, use sanitation and transportation vehicles to transport recyclable materials, adjust and optimize the sanitation and transportation lines as much as possible, and share them with renewable resources logistics lines. Or by adopting the market-oriented method, entrust a professional company to transport the recyclable materials to the district level Renewable Resources Comprehensive Utilization Center.
(4) Promote the sharing of site facilities. The establishment of recycling sites shall be connected with classified collection points of domestic garbage or sanitation garbage houses. If it is possible to adjust and expand the space layout of the garbage bin room, garbage compression station, transfer station and other site facilities of the sanitation system, adjustment and reconstruction shall be carried out, and recyclable material recovery, sorting, primary processing station or renewable resource transfer station shall be set up, so as to achieve "one field for two purposes" and be operated by the renewable resource operation main body, and the sanitation and cleaning personnel shall be included in the resource recovery basic network Point unified management to achieve overlay recovery service function. Where conditions permit, recycling enterprises and environmental sanitation enterprises shall work together to make a unified plan for recyclable waste sorting centers, to sort recyclable waste centrally, to save land and improve efficiency.
(5) Promote platform integration. Resource recovery data should be shared with classified data of sanitation. Encourage the establishment of an information platform based on the Internet, the Internet of things and cloud computing to integrate waste intelligent classification and resource recovery, integrate the data and information collection of the whole process of source classification, resource recovery, sanitation and transportation, processing and utilization, and terminal processing, form big data analysis of the whole waste industry chain, and provide data support for the government's decision-making and governance.


8. Key points of classified delivery and collection
(1) Increase publicity and create a social atmosphere. Relevant departments and units such as business, urban management, environmental protection, street (township), community, property and operation entities should coordinate as a whole, adopt various ways and channels, strengthen the publicity of waste classification and public welfare of resource recovery, promote classified recycling into communities, schools, institutions, shopping malls and parks, improve the awareness of resource recovery and waste classification of citizens, and give full play to the society It will guide public opinion and create a good social atmosphere for waste classification and resource recovery.
(2) The source classification starts from the family. Family is not only the producer of domestic garbage, but also the first person responsible for the classification of domestic garbage. Therefore, garbage source classification should start from the family. According to the actual situation, the operating entity can distribute three kinds of garbage bags with different marks to the community residents (i.e. kitchen garbage bags, recyclable garbage bags and non recyclable garbage bags), and require the residents to put the three kinds of garbage into the corresponding garbage bags at home. The quantity of hazardous waste is small and the frequency of putting it in is low, so the residents can pack it by themselves. According to the actual situation, local governments can formulate compulsory or punitive measures for household garbage classification.
(3) Settings for the garbage collection container. There are four kinds of collection containers for recyclable waste, kitchen waste, non recyclable waste and hazardous waste in the residential quarter, among which the containers for hazardous waste collection must have eye-catching signs. If hazardous waste management is involved, temporary storage places shall be set up according to the requirements of relevant standards for pollution control of hazardous waste storage; The government, enterprises and institutions shall set up three kinds of collection containers for recyclable waste, non recyclable waste and hazardous waste, the canteen of the unit shall set up kitchen waste collection containers, and the public, entertainment, commercial and other places shall set up two kinds of collection containers for recyclable waste and non recyclable waste. Individuals and units put different kinds of domestic garbage into corresponding garbage collection containers. Recyclable waste, kitchen waste and non recyclable waste are cleaned every day. The amount of hazardous waste is small, and the operation subject can determine the fixed-point collection frequency according to the actual situation. In areas where conditions permit, it is possible to explore the elimination of fixed garbage cans in residential areas, adopt the methods of regular classified delivery and classified collection, and gradually cultivate residents' good habits of regular classified delivery of garbage.
(4) Establish incentive mechanism of classified investment. Encourage operation entities to adopt intelligent waste classification system, establish similar "green account", "environmental protection file", "green bank" and credit exchange system, integrate or combine commercial facilities such as community supermarkets and shopping malls, form supporting services, provide economic incentives such as credit cashing for residents' classified waste delivery behavior, and adjust The enthusiasm of classification of Mobile Residents' garbage increases the sense of honor of correct classification of residents, and provides big data support for the government to build a smart city.
(5) Lay community waste disposal site. The setting of recycling sites should take full care of residents' habit of putting garbage, i.e. putting low value garbage into garbage containers and selling high value waste products to recycling sites. Therefore, in accordance with the principle of relative stability and convenience for sale, each district should set up at least one waste (renewable resources) sale site, which should be included in the overall planning of regional urban construction and management, and supported by the district government, streets and property companies. The area of waste products delivery station is 5-10 square meters, which is set up according to the recycling system construction specification of the Ministry of Commerce. In communities where there is no space to set up waste disposal stations, the operation subject shall set up regular mobile recycling vehicles to facilitate residents to sell high-value waste, and the streets, communities and property companies shall provide support.
(6) build Internet plus recycling platform. With the development of Internet technology and the popularization of smart phones, online sale of waste products will become more and more common. Besides the laying of the recycling network, the main business entities should build the platform of Internet plus recovery, establish mobile phone APP terminals, and rely on the advantages of offline outlets to form online call collection, transaction and offline offline acquisition service acquisition system.
(7) Collect and compile waste pickers and establish a regular recycling team. Encourage the operators to recruit and integrate the scavengers in the region, and establish a "Five Unifications" and "five openness" regular and standardized recycling team in accordance with the recycling system construction specifications of the Ministry of Commerce. Streets, communities and property companies should give strong support. For the "one post, two posts" sanitation workers, the operation subject should also carry out standardized management according to the requirements of the recycling team construction of the Ministry of Commerce.
(8) Form a standardized recycling network. The recovery network of the operation main body shall enter the community, enterprises, schools and institutions, through the laying of offline recovery outlets and the construction of online recovery platform, through the integration of the collection and distribution of sanitation and cleaning personnel and scavengers, through the improvement of the layout of transfer stations in renewable resources, and through the elimination of illegal occupation of roads, unauthorized construction and environmental sanitation non-conforming stations To establish a complete, advanced and standardized recycling network of renewable resources.

9. Key points of classified transportation
(1) Transportation route planning. According to the amount and distribution of garbage, the local governments should take measures according to local conditions and scientifically plan and design the facilities and routes for classified recycling and compression of domestic garbage, and gradually promote the construction of large-scale multifunctional domestic garbage compression and transfer stations.
(2) Classified transportation of domestic waste. It is prohibited to transport the classified domestic waste in a mixed way. The recyclable waste is transported by the transport vehicle of renewable resources into the resource recycling system; the kitchen waste is transported by the special vehicle with good leakproofness and leakproofness, and enters the biological anaerobic fermentation center; the transport of hazardous waste shall comply with the relevant regulations of the environmental protection department. Encourage the integration of the recycling body and the sanitation system, and implement the overall planning of the whole process of waste classification, collection, transportation, treatment and disposal.
(3) Large waste recycling transfer station. Where conditions permit, regions and operating entities shall set up transfer stations for the collection, temporary storage and sorting of large garbage.
10. Key points of classified treatment
(1) Classified processing. Recyclable waste shall be processed and utilized by renewable resources enterprises; kitchen waste shall be processed and utilized by biological anaerobic center; kitchen waste shall be biochemical treated by the service unit that has obtained the business disposal license for kitchen waste; non recyclable waste shall be used for energy utilization by incineration, power generation, sanitary landfill and other ways to minimize the original landfill volume; Hazardous waste shall be delivered to enterprises with hazardous waste disposal qualification and hazardous waste business license for harmless disposal.
(2) Renewable resources sorting center. At least one sorting center for renewable resources shall be built in each district (or small city, county), and necessary facilities and equipment shall be equipped according to the requirements of urban management, environmental protection, fire safety, etc., to meet the requirements of weighing, sorting, classification, sorting, disassembling, packing, temporary storage and preliminary processing after centralized recycling of renewable resources. The recyclable waste sorted out by each community is collected in the sorting center for sorting, sorting, packing and primary processing, which is convenient for docking with the comprehensive utilization chain.
(3) Layout low value recyclable material processing and utilization chain. The operation entities are encouraged to obtain the support of the local government according to the local resources and their own conditions, adopt PPP mode, lay out the processing and utilization chain of low value recyclable waste, establish resource processing and utilization centers such as waste glass, waste textiles, waste plastic bags, waste soft packaging, waste furniture and kitchen waste, so as to ensure that the resources classified from the front end can be used.

 (4) Establish a comprehensive utilization base for collaborative treatment of domestic waste. Encourage qualified operation entities to obtain support from local government, explore the establishment of a comprehensive system for collaborative treatment and utilization of domestic waste, make overall planning and construction of a comprehensive base for collaborative treatment of waste incineration, sanitary landfill, kitchen waste recycling, renewable resources processing and utilization, and harmless disposal of hazardous waste, and implement the joint construction of fire-fighting, safety, environmental protection and other infrastructure in the base Enjoy, clean, intensive, integrated and efficient allocation of relevant facilities, realize the seamless and efficient connection of waste treatment, resource utilization and hazardous waste disposal, reduce the "neighbor avoidance" effect, and improve the level of land resource conservation and intensive utilization.
11. Vigorously explore support measures
(1) Establish a policy guarantee mechanism for low value waste. It is necessary to explore the financial support policies for low value recyclable materials, provide special fund subsidies for low value recyclable materials, and form a long-term operation mechanism for low value waste recycling. According to the actual situation, all localities should calculate the special subsidy standard, which can be pushed back according to the garbage treatment fee plus freight, or calculated according to the recycling, storage and transportation, and treatment cost of low-value garbage.
(2) Explore the extended producer responsibility system. In order to promote the recycling of low value waste such as express package, Tetra Pak and so on, it is necessary to study and introduce the extended producer responsibility system for different kinds of low value recyclables. At the same time, where conditions permit, we can explore the charging system of domestic waste, who produces waste and who pays for treatment.
(3) Construction of relevant laws and regulations. All localities should speed up the exploration of the legal requirements for the compulsory classification of garbage, establish the relevant standard system for the classification of domestic garbage, refine the garbage categories and make clear the identification marks. Cities with conditions shall first issue regulations on compulsory classification of local domestic waste, formulate incentive and punishment measures for compulsory classification, and issue guidance catalogue for classification of domestic waste.
(4) We will explore ways for governments to purchase services. All localities should vigorously explore the way of government purchasing services (PPP mode), leverage market forces, and guide all sectors of society to carry out classified recycling of domestic waste. Guangzhou's experience has proved that PPP model is a feasible model to mobilize market forces to participate in the reduction and recycling of domestic waste.